The Lincoln Canine Anxiety Scale (LCAS)
The Lincoln Canine Anxiety Scale (LCAS) is a validated, reliable tool used to evaluate a dog’s anxiety in relation to an individual specific trigger – in cases where the dog is displaying anxiety to a range of different triggers.
The Lincoln Canine Anxiety Scale (LCAS) is a validated, reliable tool used to evaluate a dog’s anxiety in relation to an individual specific trigger – in cases where the dog is displaying anxiety to a range of different triggers, the scale can be repeated to give a separate score for each. For evaluation of anxiety/fearfulness as a trait, please refer to the Positive and Negative Activation Scale.
The scale provides a quantifiable record of your dog’s immediate response that can be used to evaluate and compare the response in different conditions and during treatment.
Please note, many dogs with anxiety also suffer from low grade pain and so a careful evaluation by a veterinarian for medical conditions that might be contributing to the problem is essential.
The tool has been developed and validated by researchers within the Animal Behaviour, Cognition and Welfare Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln.
The LCAS can be used:
a) As a clinical tool to evaluate and describe the anxious/fearful/phobic reaction a dog has to a specific stimulus.
b) To improve the management of problems relating to anxiety, and also as a research tool, to evaluate new treatments related to anxiety– see related publications. Our unpublished work shows that scoring of the items is generally reliable within owners, i.e. an owner can use the tool to reliable monitor their dog’s behaviour.
c) In the screening of shelter dogs at the time of relinquishment, or working dogs to predict their need for remedial intervention.
Product: LCAS is a 16 item questionnaire with each item relating to a specific sign. Each is scored for severity to generate a total score.
Academic Profile: https://staff.lincoln.ac.uk/dmills
Consultancy: Consultancy services offered through the Animal Behaviour Clinic a professional service to industry and a referral only clinic for pets and animals of all species with behaviour and training problems located at the University of Lincoln’s City Centre campus.
- Mills D.S. Müller, H. W., McPeake, K. J., & Engel, O. (2020), Development and Psychometric Validation of the Lincoln Canine Anxiety Scale, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7, 171
- McPeake, K. J., & Mills, D. S. (2017), The use of imepitoin (Pexion™) on fear and anxiety related problems in dogs–a case series, BMC veterinary research, 13(1), 173
- Lopes Fagundes, A. L., Hewison, L., McPeake, K. J., Zulch, H., & Mills, D. S (2018), Noise sensitivities in dogs: an exploration of signs in dogs with and without musculoskeletal pain using qualitative content analysis, Frontiers in veterinary science, 5, 17
- Engel, O., Müller, H. W., Klee, R., Francke, B., & Mills, D. S. (2019), Effectiveness of imepitoin for the control of anxiety and fear associated with noise phobia in dogs, Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 33(6), 2675-2684
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