Lincoln Canine Adaptability Scale (L-CARS)

Technology No.

Resilience is often described as the ability to ‘bounce back’ following adversity and dogs vary in their ability to cope with stress. This is the first canine ‘resilience’ scale. It consists of two components: one describes “Adaptability/behavioural flexibility” and the other “Perseverance”, which are also described in the human literature on resilience. These traits have predictive validity for a range of problem behaviours and should give you greater insight into your dog. 

Commercial Use:

This assessment tool is freely available for personal use.  If you require commercial use please send enquiries to

Academic Profile:

Consultancy: Consultancy services offered through the Animal Behaviour Clinic a professional service to industry and a referral only clinic for pets and animals of all species with behaviour and training problems located at the University of Lincoln’s City Centre campus.


Mackay, E. L., Zulch, H., & Mills, D. S. (2023). Trait-Level Resilience in Pet Dogs—Development of the Lincoln Canine Adaptability Resilience Scale (L-CARS). Animals, 13(5), 859.

Linked to:

  • swap_vertical_circlecloud_downloadSupporting documents (0)
    Additional files may be available once you've completed the transaction for this product. If you've already done so, please log into your account and visit My account / Downloads section to view them.

Term: perpetual

Free of charge