Antimicrobial Resistance, Pharmacists and Appreciative Inquiry (AMR-PAI) Measurement Tool

Technology No.


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to achieving the United Nation’s (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs). AMR has already been recognised as an imminent threat to the healthcare systems, globally. Healthcare professionals with prescribing/dispensing duties are at the heart of the battle against AMR. Thus, it is crucial to reliably measure the knowledge, attitudes and aspirations of these healthcare professionals to develop and implement effective interventions to curb this global threat. The AMR-PAI measurement tool is a novel, valid and reliable measure that has been developed by applying the principles of Appreciate Inquiry (AI) theory; and was originally designed to quantitatively measure knowledge and attitudes around antibiotic resistance amongst community pharmacists in Thailand. However, AMR-PAI measurement tool, because of its excellent psychometric properties, can/should be used by community pharmacists, and probably other healthcare professionals with prescribing/dispensing duties, from all over the world. The tool was developed through research collaboration between the Lincoln Medical School, School of Health and Social Care and School of Pharmacy, University of Lincoln. The AMR-PAI measurement tool can be used:

  1. as a measurement tool to quantitively measure knowledge, attitudes and aspirations of community pharmacists and potentially other healthcare professionals regarding AMR.
  2. as a diagnostic tool to help policymakers and stakeholders develop targeted interventions to battle AMR.

Files (Product)

The AMR-PIA measurement tool is a 46-item questionnaire with three domains:

1- Demographic: 24 items

2- Knowledge: 10 items

3- Attitude: 12 items

Attitude domain mainly reflects the Discovery phase of AI theory, allowing the expression of one’s aspirations for an ideal system to battle AMR.


The paper underpinning the development and piloting of the AMR-PAI measurement tool has been published in the peer-reviewed journal of “Antibiotics”.

Academic Profiles


Available upon request.

Potential Interested Parties

Clinical Researchers, Social and Administrative Researchers, Academics from variety of healthcare backgrounds, Policy makers, Public Health specialists, Healthcare providers from local, regional, national and international entities, Universities, and those who are interested in developing interventions to address AMR as an urgent healthcare priority.

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Antimicrobial Resistance, Pharmacists and Appreciative Inquiry (AMR-PAI) Measurement Tool

Term: perpetual

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